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Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786)

"Frederick II (German: Friedrich II.; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king, at 46 years.[a] His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years´ War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most historically Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("The Old Fritz") by the Prussian people and eventually the rest of Germany.

In his youth, Frederick was more interested in music and philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland. He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics, mobility and logistics.

Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble status to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick also encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, although he enacted oppressive measures against Polish Catholic subjects in West Prussia. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Most modern biographers agree that Frederick was primarily homosexual, and that his sexual orientation was central to his life and character. Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.

Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick´s "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms ... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was even more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through Germany´s defeat in World War I. The Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Adolf Hitler, who personally idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis, largely due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour." - (en.wikipedia.org 16.09.2019)

What we know

Background

was born Berlin 24.01.1712
official King Prussia 1740-1786
died Berlin 17.08.1786
son of Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740) [father of], Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (1687-1757) [mother of]
Husband of Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern (1715-1797) 1733-1786

Biography

was imprisoned Küstrin 1730

Sources & Mentions

Objects and visualizations

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[Relation to person or institution] Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786)

Was depicted (actor) Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786)
Painted Bocaj

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Map

Berlin13.4083328247070310052.51833343505859400Place of birth // Place of deathdb_images_gestaltung/generalsvg/place-biog.svg0.07522
Prussia13.4060907363891600052.51917266845703000place of actiondb_images_gestaltung/generalsvg/place-biog.svg0.0622
Küstrin14.6447753906250000052.58135604858398400Place of imprisonmentdb_images_gestaltung/generalsvg/place-biog.svg0.0622
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1782
Created
1754
Created
1782
Created
1784
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1750
Created
1782
Created
1765
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1751
Created
1783
Created
1753
Created
1756
Created
1782
Created
1783
Created
1783
Created
1753
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1757
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1782
Created
1757
Created
1783
Created
1782
Created
1765
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1765
Created
1767
Created
1754
Created
1782
Created
1764
Created
1754
Created
1786
Created
1753
Created
1765
Created
1783
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1751
Created
1769
Created
1783
Created
1783
Created
1786
Created
1751
Created
1783
Created
1757
Created
1782
Created
1765
Created
1782
Created
1783
Created
1783
Created
1753
Created
1781
Created
1776
Created
1756
Created
1769
Created
1774
Created
1764
Created
1750
Created
1778
Created
1773
Created
1755
Created
1753
Created
1751
Created
1781
Created
1765
Created
1771
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1769
Created
1765
Created
1753
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1751
Created
1770
Created
1752
Created
1757
Created
1750
Created
1780
Created
1775
Created
1765
Created
1771
Created
1767
Created
1765
Created
1779
Created
1750
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1751
Created
1753
Created
1773
Created
1773
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1775
Created
1781
Created
1775
Created
1753
Created
1782
Created
1777
Created
1767
Created
1755
Created
1754
Created
1773
Created
1765
Created
1773
Created
1777
Created
1778
Created
1753
Created
1777
Created
1756
Created
1774
Created
1753
Created
1780
Created
1767
Created
1768
Created
1776
Created
1750
Created
1776
Created
1766
Created
1756
Created
1752
Created
1769
Created
1778
Created
1764
Created
1751
Created
1774
Created
1755
Created
1751
Created
1779
Created
1780
Created
1751
Created
1755
Created
1765
Created
1751
Created
1756
Created
1756
Created
1753
Created
1764
Created
1752
Created
1769
Created
1776
Created
1779
Created
1774
Created
1783
Created
1774
Created
1776
Created
1753
Created
1775
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1757
Created
1750
Created
1780
Created
1771
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1779
Created
1772
Created
1778
Created
1786
Created
1753
Created
1773
Created
1773
Created
1753
Created
1756
Created
1753
Created
1783
Created
1752
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1786
Created
1774
Created
1764
Created
1764
Created
1773
Created
1778
Created
1772
Created
1751
Created
1771
Created
1776
Created
1777
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1777
Created
1753
Created
1764
Created
1771
Created
1774
Created
1779
Created
1771
Created
1754
Created
1771
Created
1774
Created
1771
Created
1753
Created
1773
Created
1772
Created
1753
Created
1771
Created
1752
Created
1779
Created
1757
Created
1756
Created
1780
Created
1755
Created
1780
Created
1772
Created
1756
Created
1776
Created
1772
Created
1752
Created
1772
Created
1767
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1750
Created
1752
Created
1777
Created
1777
Created
1765
Created
1753
Created
1777
Created
1754
Created
1776
Created
1769
Created
1777
Created
1774
Created
1772
Created
1779
Created
1783
Created
1772
Created
1773
Created
1750
Created
1780
Created
1753
Created
1766
Created
1777
Created
1776
Created
1777
Created
1751
Created
1771
Created
1773
Created
1756
Created
1754
Created
1779
Created
1751
Created
1776
Created
1775
Created
1779
Created
1751
Created
1776
Created
1752
Created
1753
Created
1754
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1772
Created
1775
Created
1781
Created
1764
Created
1775
Created
1779
Created
1777
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1754
Created
1776
Created
1774
Created
1774
Created
1778
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1771
Created
1771
Created
1771
Created
1750
Created
1756
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1778
Created
1777
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1756
Created
1775
Created
1776
Created
1751
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1768
Created
1778
Created
1773
Created
1777
Created
1753
Created
1754
Created
1772
Created
1753
Created
1776
Created
1779
Created
1753
Created
1753 - 1754
Created
1750
Created
1773
Created
1752
Created
1773
Created
1781
Created
1778
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1778
Created
1772
Created
1774
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1771
Created
1785
Created
1750
Created
1778
Created
1753
Created
1764
Created
1752
Created
1764
Created
1777
Created
1783
Created
1771
Created
1778
Created
1778
Created
1773
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1774
Created
1751
Created
1778
Created
1751
Created
1771
Created
1756
Created
1771
Created
1766
Created
1771
Created
1753
Created
1755
Created
1772
Created
1756
Created
1783
Created
1771
Created
1774
Created
1773
Created
1783
Created
1753
Created
1751
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1750
Created
1778
Created
1756
Created
1773
Created
1776
Created
1753
Created
1771
Created
1772
Created
1752
Created
1779
Created
1773
Created
1746
Created
1771
Created
1753
Created
1771
Created
1779
Created
1768
Created
1776
Created
1777
Created
1752
Created
1776
Created
1751
Created
1776
Created
1756
Created
1777
Created
1753
Created
1776
Created
1773
Created
1778
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1785
Created
1771
Created
1752
Created
1756
Created
1772
Created
1751
Created
1756
Created
1774
Created
1776
Created
1771
Created
1774
Created
1752
Created
1765
Created
1778
Created
1778
Created
1772
Created
1778
Created
1756
Created
1774
Created
1764
Created
1753
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1756
Created
1769
Created
1753
Created
1779
Created
1753
Created
1783
Created
1752
Created
1764
Created
1775
Created
1775
Created
1750
Created
1777
Created
1773
Created
1752
Created
1778
Created
1783
Created
1782
Created
1784
Created
1778
Created
1752
Created
1772
Created
1782
Created
1786
Created
1764
Created
1774
Created
1764
Created
1783
Created
1765
Created
1766
Created
1776
Created
1764
Created
1777
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1750
Created
1755
Created
1754
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1750
Created
1756
Created
1750
Created
1754
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1756
Created
1751
Created
1754
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1750
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1753
Created
1751
Created
1752
Created
1751
Created
1751
Created
1750
Created
1753
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1752
Created
1782
Created
1753
Created
1752
Signed
1783
Written
1752
Time of birth
1712
Time of action
1740 - 1786
Time of death
1786
Time of imprisonment
1730
Timespan (generic)
1733 - 1786
1711 1787
Show relations to time periods